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Grammar and Writing 2 bac
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مُساهمةعنوان المشاركة: Grammar and Writing 2 bacمرسل: الإثنين سبتمبر 05, 2011 8:38 am

Grammar and Writing 2 bac
GRAMMAR

THE PRESENT SIMPLE:is used for:
a/regular actions or events :
He plays tennis most weekends.
The sun rises in the east.
c/facts known about the future ::
We leave at 8.30 next Monday
d/thoughts and feelings about the time of speaking::
I don't feel very well.

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS::The Present Continuous is used for:
a/the time of speaking ('now'):
Sshh, I'm trying to hear what they are saying .
b/things which are true at the moment but not always:
We're looking for a new flat.
c/present plans for the future:
We're having dinner with them next week .

Look at these examples :

1.I don't usually have cereals for breakfast but I'm having some this morning because there is nothing else.
2.I often cycle to work but I'm taking the car this morning because it's raining very hard.
3.I'm thinking about having my hair cut short but I don't think my husband will be very happy about it.
4.My parents live in OURZAZAT but I'm just visiting it.

Note how, in all these examples, we use the present continuous to talk
about events which are temporary/limited in time and the present simple
to talk about events which are habits/permanent.


THE SIMPLE PAST:is used :
a/ to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past.
b/We use it to talk about a specific point in time.

I saw her in the street yesterday.
He came back last Thursday.
We didn't agree to the deal.
c/We can also use it to talk about a period of time.

We lived in Japan for five years.
She was in London from Monday to Thursday last week.
When he was living in New York, he went to all the bars and clubs he could.

You will often find the past simple used with time expressions such as these:

Yesterday
three weeks ago
last year
in 2002
from March to June
for a long time
for 6 weeks
in the 1980s
in the last century
in the past

THE PAST CONTINUOUS:is used for:
a/to talk about past events which took place for a period of time.
b/It
is used to emphasize the continuing process of an activity or the
period of that activity. (If we want to talk about a past event as a
simple fact, we use the past simple.)

1.While I was driving home, Richard was trying desperately to phone me.
2.Sorry, were you sleeping?
3.I was just making some tea. Would you like some?
4.I was thinking about her last night.
5.In the 1990s, very few people were using mobile phones.
c/We often use it to describe a "background action" when something else happened.

1.They were still waiting for the plane when I spoke to them.
2.He was talking to me on the phone and it suddenly went dead.
4.She was walking in the street when she suddenly fell over.
5.The company was growing rapidly before he became chairman.
6.We were just talking about it before you arrived.
7.I was having a cup of coffee when I remembered I was supposed to be in a meeting!


THE PRESENT PERFECT:is used :
a/when we want to look back from the present to the past.

We can use it to look back on the recent past.

1.I've broken my watch so I don't know what time it is.
2.They have cancelled the meeting.
3.She's taken my book. I don't have one.
b/When
we look back on the recent past, we often use the words 'just'
'already' or the word 'yet' (in negatives and questions only).

1.We've already talked about that.
2.She hasn't arrived yet.
3.I've just done it.
4.have you spoken to him yet?
5.She's done this type of project many times before.
c/When we look back on the more distant past, we often use the words 'ever' (in questions) and 'never'.

1.Has he ever talked to you about the problem?
2.I've never met a famous singer.
THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS:is used to:

to talk about an action or actions that started in the past and continued until recently or that continue into the future:
a/We can use it to refer to an action that has finished but you can still see evidence.

1.Oh, the kitchen is a mess. Who has been cooking?
2.You look tired. Have you been sleeping properly?
3.I've got a a stiff neck. I've been working too long on computer.
b/It can refer to an action that has not finished.

1.I've been learning English for 3 years and I still don't know how speak it very well.
I've been waiting for him for 30 minutes and he still hasn't arrived.
He's been telling me about it for days. I wish he would stop.
c/It can refer to a series of actions.

1.She's been writing to her regularly for a couple of years.
2.He's been phoning me all week for an answer.

The
present perfect continuous is often used with 'since', 'for', 'all
week', 'for days', 'lately', 'recently', 'over the last few months'.

1.I've been working for this companyt for ten years.
2.He's been working here since 2001
3.You haven't been getting good results over the last few months.
4.They haven't been working all week. They're on strike
5.I've been looking at other options recently.



THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE:is used to:
a.to talk about what happened before a point in the past. It looks back from a point in the past to a time further in the past.

1.She had already spoken to him before I had time to give him my version.
2.I checked with our customers but they still hadn't received the delivery.
3.I hadn't known the bad news when I saw him.
4.The company had started the year very well but was hit badly by the strikes.
b/It is often used when we report what people had said/thought/believed.

1.He phoned me to say that they had already paid the bill.
2.She said she thought John had moved to Italy.
3.I thought we had already decided on somewhere for our holidays.



THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS (FOR FUTURE):is used :
a/When we talk about things that we have already arranged to do in the future.

In these examples, we are talking about regular actions or events.

1.I've got my ticket. I'm leaving on Thursday.
2.I'm seeing a movie at 5 and then I'm having dinner with a colleague.
b/In
many situations when we talk about future plans we can use either the
present continuous or the 'going to' future. However, when we use the
present continuous, there is more of a suggestion that an arrangement
has already been made.

1.I'm going to see him./I'm seeing him.
2.I'm going to do it./I'm doing it.
c/We
use the present simple to talk about events in the future which are
'timetabled'. We can also use the present continuous to talk about
these.

1.My plane leaves at 6 in the morning.
2.The shop opens at 9.30.
3.The sun is rising at 6.32 tomorrow.



THE FUTURE WITH (GOING TO..):

There
is no one 'future tense' in English. There are 4 future forms. The one
which is used most often in spoken English is 'going to', not 'will'.
a/We use 'going to' when we want to talk about a plan for the future.

1.I'm going to see him later today.
2.We're going to have lunch first.

Notice that this plan does not have to be for the near future.

1.When I retire I'm going to go back to my home town to live.
2.In ten years time, my elder son is going to take over my own successful company.
b/We use 'going to' when we want to make a prediction based on evidence we can see now.

1..Look out! That vase is going to fall off.
2.Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain soon.


THE FUTURE WITH (WILL)::
a/We can use 'will' to talk about future events we believe to be certain.

1.Next year, I'll be 50.
2.That plane will be late. It always is.
b/Often we add 'perhaps', 'maybe', 'probably', 'possibly' to make the belief less certain.

1.I'll probably come back later.
2.Maybe it will rain again.
3.Perhaps we'll meet again some day.
c/We often use 'will' with 'I think' or 'I hope'.

1.I think she'll do well in the job.
2.I hope you won't make too much noise.
/d.We use 'will' at the moment we make a new decision or plan. The thought has just come into our head. apromise or an offer:

1.Bye. I'll phone you when I get there
2.I'll answer that.
3.I won't tell him. I promise.


CONDITIONAL ZERO)::
a/WE use "zero conditional" When we want to talk about things that are always or generally true, we can use:

If/When/Unless plus a present form PLUS present simple or imperative

1.If you press this button, you get black coffee.
2.When the temperature rises,ice melts.
3.When you go to the beach, take some sun cream.
CONDITIONAL 1ST::
a/We use the First Conditional to talk about future events that are likely to happen.

1.If we take the children, they'll be really pleased.
2.If you give me some money, I'll pay you back tomorrow.
3.unless he feels better,he won't go with us
CONDITIONAL 2ND::
a/We can use the Second Conditional to talk about 'impossible' situations.

1.If I had one million dollars, I'd give a lot to charity.

(Notice that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'.)

2.If she were really happy in her job, she'd be working much harder.
(Notice the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice.)

1.If I were you, I'd change my job.
b/We can also use the Second Conditional to talk about 'unlikely' situations.

1.If I won the lottery, I'd buy my parents a big house.
2.If I went to the moon, I'd bring back some moon rock.

Notice
that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a
question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. For example,
consider two people Peter Pessimist and Otto Optimist.

NAJIB – If I win the lottery, I'll buy a big house.(optimist)
KAMAL – If I won the lottery, I'd buy a big house.(pessimist)
CONDITIONAL 3ND::
a/Often
referred to as the "past" conditional because it concerns only past
situations with hypothetical results. b/Used to express a hypothetical
result to a past given situation.
1.If Jack had thoughttwice, he wouldn't have made such a stupid mistake.
(did he think? no)
(did he make a mistake ? Yes)
2.They would have been home by ten if the train had been on time.
(was the train on time?no)
Were they home by ten ?No)



WISH+SIMPLE PAST::
a/the
main use of 'wish' is to say that we would like things to be different
from what they are, that we have regrets about the present situation.

(Notice that the verb tense which follows 'I wish' is 'more in the past' than the tense corresponding to its meaning)

1.I wish I was rich.
2.He wishes he lived in Paris.
3.I'm too fat. I wish I was thin.
4.It's raining. I wish it wasn't raining.
WISH+PAST PERFECT::
b/showing regrets about past situations:

1.I went to see the latest Star Wars film. I wish I hadn't gone.
2.I've eaten too much. I wish I hadn't eaten so much
c/we use 'would'after wish" when we anticipate some change

1.He won't help me. I wish he would help me.
2.You're making too much noise. I wish you would be quiet.
3.You keep interrupting me. I wish you wouldn't do that.


COMPARATIVES//SUPERLATIVES


MAIN USE


Comparatives
are used to compare two things and to highlight the superiority,
inferiority, or equality of one term compared to another.
For
comparisons in larger groups, you must use the superlative. The
superlative designates extremes: the best, the first, the worst, the
last, etc.

SUPERIORITY: a) Short adjectives: adj+ er than
Peter is taller than Sandra.

b) COMPARATIVES :Long adjectives: :MORE + adj + THAN
A Ferrari is more expensive than a Mini.
SUPERLATIVE:Short & long adjectives:
:THE ADJ+-EST/IESTt...

:THE MOST/THE LEAST + adjective...

It's the nicest place i've ever visited
This is the most pleasant place on Earth!
EQUALITY Short & long adjectives:
:AS... adjective... AS..


English is as easy as German. Doesn't exist
INFERIORITY Short & long adjectives::LESS + adjectif + THAN
July is less cold than January.
NOTES:

Short adjectives: 1 syllable (eg: young) + 2-syllable adjectives ending in -y (eg: pretty)
Long adjectives: all the other adjectives

COMPARATIVES:
> If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i" : heavy --> heavier
> If the adjective ends in "--e" only an "r" is needed: wise --> wiser
> If the adjective ends with "single vowel + consonant" the consonant is doubled and one adds "--er" : big --> bigger
> Some very common adjectives have irregular comparatives: good --> better | bad --> worse | far --> farther

SUPERLATIVES:
Irregular forms: good --> the best · bad --> the worst · far --> the farthest




PHRASAL VERBS::
PHRASAL VERBS
Phrasal Verbs are verbs with more than one word.

Examples: pick up, put down, turn on, turn off
Phrasal verbs are also called 'two-part verbs' and 'three-part verbs.'


There are two types of phrasal verbs: separable and non separable.

Non separable phrasal verbs are sometimes called 'inseparable.'

Non separable (n) phrasal verbs must always remain together:
Example: take off = (n) to depart
CORRECT: The plane took off at noon. (verb + particle together)
XX INCORRECT: The plane took at noon off. (both words MUST be together)


Separable (s) phrasal verbs can be written three different ways:
Example: take off (s) = to remove clothing
CORRECT: Sara took off her jacket. (verb + particle together)
CORRECT: Sara took her jacket off. (verb + particle separated by noun)
CORRECT: Sara took it off. (verb + particle separated with a pronoun)
XX INCORRECT: Sara took off it. (the pronoun MUST be in the middle)


THE PASSIVE VOICE:
The
passive voice requires a "double verb" and will always consist of a
form of the verb "to be" and the past participle (usually the "en/ed/t"
form) of another verb. Example: is kicked

You should be familiar with the forms of "to be" so that they can easily identify the passive voice in their work.

Review the forms of "to be": am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been

Note the forms of "to be" in the examples of the verb "to kick" in various forms of the passive voice:

is kicked----------------had been kicked
was kicked-------------is going to be kicked
is being kicked---------will be kicked
has been kicked-------can be kicked
was being kicked------should be kicked

Often
passive voice sentences will contain a "by" phrase indicting who or
what performed the action. Passive sentences can be easily transformed
into active sentences when the object of the preposition "by" is moved
to the subject position in the sentence.

Passive: The cookies were eaten by the children.
Active: The children ate the cookies.


Passive: English is spoken all over the world.
Active: People speak English all over the world.



in spite of + noun

although + clause

despite + noun

though + clause

even though + clause

**Although and though can be used in the same way.
**Despite and in spite of are normally used as prepositions, they can also be used in adverbial constructions with -ing, thus:
1. 'I managed to pass my exams, despite going out four times a week during the revision period.'
2.'In spite of feeling terribly sick, I went to work every day that week.'


Example Sentences:Cause


1.There was flooding because heavy rain fell all night.
2.There was flooding because of the heavy rain.
3.The heavy rain was the cause ofthe flooding. .
4.Due to the heavy rain there was flooding.

Example Sentences:Effect

1.The standards of living in the home country is very low .So, many Africans migrate to Europe.
2.The standards of living in the home country is very low .as a consequence, many Africans migrate to Europe
3.The standards of living in the home country is very low .Cconsequently, many Africans migrate to Europe
4.The standards of living in the home country is very low .Therefore, many Africans migrate to Europe
5.Low standards of living in the home county result in immigration to Europe
WRITING

subjects (1): Television :

TV:advantages and disadvantages:

Here is the first part of a composition about TV:Read it and complete the compossition:

TV
is one of the most popular ways to spend our time. Nowadays ,more and
more peopleand particularly teenagers spend twice as much time in front
of the TV than reading books or playing games outside. As far as I know
,there is a great variety of opinions about television: some say that
it’s very useful, and the others that it’s harmful. I would like to
mention some positive aspects.
In the first place, it keeps people
informed. There is news, which inform us about the events which
happeni all around the world. Besides, advertisements on TV give us more
information about the new products and goods in the
market.....................................................
subjects (2): obesity :

Obesity
is considered today as a disease.Write an article to your school
magazine stating some of its causes- like bad eating habits_ and effects
and suggest some ideas to get rid of it.subjects (3): Immigration :

A
large number of Moroccan people have emigrated to Europe or
Canada.Write an article to your school magazine stating thereasons why
people emigrate and listing the problems theu may face in the host
country.subjects (4): Working woman :

some people believe that a
mother should not work.Others argue against it.Write an article to a
newspaper and consider the problems a working mother faces and give your
opinion.

Suggested essay:


Nowadays it is important for women to work outside the home because of
economic reasons.Yet; this idea is still debated by many people. Some
people argue that the family, especially small children, may be
neglected. I believe that every woman has the right to work, but she
should carefully consider the many problems she might encounter.

The major problems a working woman faces concern her children. She
must either find a reliable person to look after them or a nursery
school that the children can attend. But the big problem is that when
the mother is at work, she may worry about her children. She may wonder
if they are safe, if they are learning good values, and if her absence
is hurting them emotionally.
After a mother takes into
consideration all these problems above and perhaps other problems, she
must decide if a job outside home is worth it.
I believe that in spite of all these obstacles, many mothers do work and manage a family successfully.
In Conclusion, it is a woman’s right to make this choice and only
the woman herself should decide this matter.subjects (5): pollution :
Advances
in technology and sicience have solved many problems.However,they have
also created new problems:The most serious is the problem of pollution.
Write an article showing some causes of this problem and give your opinion on how to deal with it.

Suggested essay:
Nowadays,
technology has brought many conveniences to facilitate our
life.However,these same advancements in technology and science have
caused some dangerous problems. The most hazardous of all of them is
pollution.
Our land, air and water are all polluted. Perhaps the
most serious threat to our planet is the loss of the ozone layer and the
warming of the earth’s atmosphere which are due to carbon dioxide
emissions from factories. Besides, the chemicals we use for cleaning and
chemical wastes from factories go into our water systems and pollute
the water we drink and the fish we eat. They also kill much of the
wildlife we need for our food.
In conclusion, these problems are
growing daily because people don’t want to change their lifestyle.
People need to be educated so they will stop damaging our planet.
Furthermore,governments
should take actions to prevent individuals and companies from harming
their environment.subjects (6): Morocco and its culture:

Morocco
is very rich culturally. It has many dialects and traditions which
differ from one region to another. The more we move towards the center ,
the north, the south , the west or the east things start to change.
This difference is what makes our country attractive and a destination
for millions of tourists every year. Morocco offers numerous delicious
dishes and comfortable hotels available everywhere. Another advantage is
the suitable weather that appeals to foreign visitors from the five
continents. The Moroccan people are tolerant, generous and ready to give
a helping hand to the needy. They welcome their guests and try their
best to make their stay as enjoyable as possible.subjects (7):
Empowering women and development:

Women have for so long been
likened to slaves, created just to serve and execute men’s orders. In
some cultures, they were considered as a part of the furniture of the
house. The situation is not as acute as it used to be. However, girls in
some parts of the world are still unable to go to school because life
in the countryside needs help even from children. Thus, illiteracy is so
prevailing in rural areas. It undoubtedly affects development and
prosperity. As a result, the government has launched many campaigns
aiming at fighting this problem which is an obstacle in the integration
of women in the development of the Moroccan society.
Women in all
parts of the world have struggled so as to get a place in the sun. The
fruit of this hard work has been the family code. Many claim that it’s a
triumph for Moroccan women. Others, however, believe that it has
complicated things and has widened the gap between men and women.. The
point is that women need more rights to be able to efficiently
contribute to the welfare of the society. For this reason, we witness
today their emergence in political parties and organizations to raise up
their voices against gender discrimination within the same society.
subjects (: Why do children leave school?:

Write an article to your school magazine showing some of the reasons and the effects of this problem.
Suggested article:

One
of the biggest issues that some families encounter is their children's
dropping out of school. This is due to many reasons. First, most
children who live in rural areas can't attend school regularly because
it is situated far away from where they live. Their parents also need
them to help with the housework. Another reason is that poor families
can't afford to provide their children with all what they need for
school, as books and school things are getting expensive. The problem is
also due to family problems and divorce. Children can't study when
parents often have rows. In cities, small children leave school early to
go out to work and support their deprived families. As a result, these
poor kids get lost in the world of adults. Some become addicted to
smoking and drugs. Others turn to crime. Generally speaking, they are
victims of circumstances and are, thus, often emprisoned.
subjects (9): Brain Drain:
Write
a pargarph showing some of the reasons why some highly skilled and
educated people leave their countriesand what effects this phenomenom
has on the home country

Suggested paragraph:
One of the most
serious issues in the world today is the brain drain phenomenon.
Thousands of intellectuals leave their native country in search for a
better life. There are many factors that breed this situation. First,
the lack of job opportunities is one of them. Moreover, the host country
offers better work conditions and ensures a comfortable life for these
new comers. This “Capital flight” as many people call it has both
positive and negative effects. It not only helps these brainy people to
improve their standards of living but it also enables them to contribute
to the development of their home country when they come back. One way
to prevent this is to offer to these people tempting salaries and
opportunities to ameliorate their potentials inside their home
country.....subjects (10): Technology :
Suggested paragraph:
Advanced
technology has transformed our lives completely both physically and
morally. Every day people are assaulted by new gadgets on markets. As a
result, life is becoming more and more comfortable but complicated as
well. Unemployment is spreading because machines are taking man’s place.
Armed conflicts break out here and there due to free arm trade. More
and more refugees abandon their home land in search of peaceful
shelther. Technology is something good as long as it serves humanity.
However, when it makes a mistake, the price to pay is very high : human
lives! subjects (11): The Internet :
Suggested pargraph:
Many
people consider the internet as one of the most important sources of
learning. It not only gives sound and picture but reading texts as well.
Besides this, it enables people of different ages to widen and enrich
their knowledge about a specific topic. The internet is a bank of
information where one can find anything he or she dreams of. Although
some people still dread using the internet, it remains a powerful and
vital means of learning............





cr7m


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عدد المساهمات : 35
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مُساهمةعنوان المشاركة: رد: Grammar and Writing 2 bacمرسل: السبت فبراير 04, 2012 10:05 pm

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